Monday, June 20, 2016

Glucosamine and Healing Part Two

Glucosamine and Healing Part Two
In my previous blog, I discussed what Glucosamine is. I explained the effects of Glucosamine use on Osteoarthritis, and enhanced healing of cartilaginous injuries. In this blog I will be discussing how Glucosamine affects tissue regeneration and wound healing.

Enhanced Tissue Regeneration and Wound Healing
Immediately after an injury the process of wound repair and tissue regeneration begin by the release of different growth factors.  GA is shown to stimulate matrix formation, increasing inflammatory responses, and enhancing hyaluronic acid (HA) for better wound healing.1 HA is synthesized quickly by fibroblasts in the early stages of wound healing; it also promotes the migration and proliferation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.2 In study number one thirty-six rats were divided into three groups; the control group, the glucosamine group, and a group treated with the vehicle gel. A 1cm circular wound was created on the posterior surface of the neck. Each rat was treated once a day for fifteen days. At the end of the fifteen days the wounds that were treated with the GA had a rate of wound closure, numerical density of the fibroblasts, volume density of collagen bundles, and volume and length density of the vessels was significantly higher than the other two groups. From this study it can be concluded that GA enhances wound closure rate, fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis and proliferation of hair follicles in contrast with the base and control group.1 It is also shown that GA by oral intake may prove to be useful not only in wounds but also in the management of cutaneous or gastrointestinal ulcers.2 In the second study a patient had recently had a surgery that included an average sized surgical wound. When the patient returned to see his surgeon the surgeon was amazed at how fast the incision was healing, the surgeon stated that the wound was “four weeks ahead of schedule”. The surgeon and the patient concluded that the advanced healing must be contributed by the daily intake of GA.2
     After researching this topic, there are a couple things that can be concluded. The first thing is when GA is coupled with a strength training program it can be used to help reduce  cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. Without exercise it has been shown that taking a GA supplement daily did not have reduced symptoms or reduced progression of OA. The second conclusion is that orally administered GA facilitated healing of artificial created cartilage injuries in rabbits. The last thing is that GA has a healing effect on open wounds by increasing the production of hyaluronic acid; which promotes healing.

1Ashkani-Esfahani, S. (2012). Glucosamine Enhances Tissue Regeneration In The Process Of Wound Healing In Rats As Animal Model; A Stereological Study. Journal of Cytology & Histology, 3(4), 1-5.
2Mccarty, M. (1996). Glucosamine for wound healing. Medical Hypotheses, 47(4), 273-275.
3 Petersen, S., Saxne, T., Heinegard, D., Hansen, M., Holm, L., Koskinen, S., ... Kjaer, M. (2010). Glucosamine But Not Ibuprofen Alters Cartilage Turnover In Osteoarthritis Patients In Response To Physical Training1. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 18(1), 34-40.
4Petersen, S., Beyer, N., Hansen, M., Holm, L., Aagaard, P., Mackey, A., & Kjaer, M. (2011). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug or Glucosamine Reduced Pain and Improved Muscle Strength With Resistance Training in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Knee Osteoarthritis Patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1185-1193.
5Rozendaal, R., Uitterlinden, E., Van Osch, G., Garling, E., Willemsen, S., Ginai, A., ... Bierma-Zeinstra, S. (2009). Effect Of Glucosamine Sulphate On Joint Space Narrowing, Pain And Function In Patients With Hip Osteoarthritis; Subgroup Analyses Of A Randomized Controlled Trial. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 17, 427-432.
6Tamai, Y., Miyatake, K., Okamoto, Y., Takamori, Y., Sakamoto, H., & Minami, S. (2002). Enhanced healing of cartilaginous injuries by glucosamine hydrochloride. Carbohydrate Polymers, 48(4), 369-378. Retrieved November 7, 2014.

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