Monday, October 31, 2016

Concurrent Method

Different sports require a variety of training aspects to help a player achieve optimal performance. For instance, basketball players may need to be explosive in their jump but also be able to run up and down the court for an extensive amount of time. Coaches want players to be capable of doing both, so concurrent training is their method of choice. “Concurrent training is one method that many coaches employ as it consists of training multiple qualities at equal amounts of focus within the same training phase and often within the same workout.”2 This method allows an athlete to simultaneously train for adaptations associated with resistance and endurance training.
Concurrent training has been said to be ineffective due to the issue of endurance training affecting strength improvements. Recent studies show that athletes are unable to maximize skeletal muscle hypertrophy, strength, and power, while engaging in an aggressive endurance training program. Research shows aerobic exercise kills an athlete’s ability to produce power and strength. Most coaches and trainers understand that training type I muscle fibers (slow twitch) will increase muscular endurance, but hinder speed and explosion of the type II muscle fibers (fast twitch). Train fast to be fast, right? Absolutely, but in sports that require both anaerobic and aerobic training, some type of endurance exercise needs to be involved for the athlete to efficiently compete.
The beauty of the concurrent method is it can used for training of almost any sport because most of them require both endurance and explosive movements. Depending on the sport, endurance training could be minimally used. To maximize concurrent training, recommendations include using endurance training wisely, and strategically programming it into your resistance training blocks. Intersperse high intensity interval training and low-to-moderate intensity endurance training to keep endurance training volume at a minimum, while reaping the benefits of endurance training.1 Endurance training can be easily overtrained, so careful implementation is required to make sure resistance training is not delayed.
In conclusion, “there is no literature indicating that concurrent training is detrimental to any performance outcome associated with endurance training. In contrast, the literature indicates that there is a sharp dose-response relationship with endurance training frequency and duration (i.e. volume) on resistance training associated outcomes such as muscular strength, power, and hypertrophy.”1 By strategically implementing endurance training, an athlete can maximize benefits associated with both resistance and endurance training. This method is best suited for sports that require both aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

1Lewis, M. (n.d.). How to Maximize Concurrent Training. Retrieved October 06, 2016, from

2Ward, P. (n.d.). Concurrent Training: Strength and Aerobic Training at the Same Time? Retrieved October 06, 2016, from

Carbohydrates: Unlocking the Secrets to Nutrition

Carbohydrates are extremely important because they are the body’s main source of energy. On average, females consume 177 grams of carbohydrates and males consume 287 grams of carbohydrates per day in the United States.1 It is recommended that an individual’s diet should consist of over 55% of carbohydrates, however, most individuals do not consume this amount. Unfortunately, most individuals consume far too many simple carbohydrates, as opposed to complex carbohydrates. I will explain what these are later on in this blog. Carbs are categorized into three different categories. These are monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.2
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are also known as simple carbohydrates and are commonly called sugars. Monosaccharides consist of one sugar. Some common monosaccharides that are frequently seen are glucose and fructose. Glucose is found in honey, fruits, sweet corn, and more. It used to be a very common dietary sugar. Fructose is also in fruits and honey.1 It is becoming a more common dietary sugar now-a-days because it does not cause a spike in blood sugar, whereas glucose does cause a spike. This is due to the slow rate at which fructose enters the bloodstream. Disaccharides consist of two sugar molecules. Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are all common disaccharides.

Polysaccharides consist of three or more sugar molecules and are also known as complex carbohydrates. Starch and glycogen are the two most important polysaccharides. This is because of their energy contribution.  Starch can be found in pasta, breads, roots legumes, grains, and more. It is a very common and major source of energy for individuals.1 One very common polysaccharide that does not provide energy to the body is fiber. Though fiber does not provide energy to the body, it does help promote effective intestinal function. Fiber is often found in whole grain breads, fruits, stalks, vegetables and leaves, as well as in the outer covering of seeds, grains, and nuts. It helps the body to feel satisfied and full.
It is extremely important for individuals to consume the right amount and type of carbohydrates to ensure they have energy to properly fuel their body throughout the day. People need to start consuming less simple carbohydrates and more complex carbohydrates.

1Gastelu, D. (2000). Types of carbohydrates. Sports Nutrition.
2Szalay, J. (2015). What are carbohydrates? Live Science.

Competitive or. Cooperative Activities in Physical Education

What is the ideal physical education class? Is it competitive or cooperative learning activities? Cooperative learning activities are lessons that focus more on team building to accomplish a given task.2 The answer could be a mix of both. Each one has its own benefits and purposes. We are all different and react differently within each situation. This blog attempts to outline the benefits to both competitive and cooperative activities.
Competitive sports have obvious benefits along with some less obvious ones. The first and most obvious  are the physical benefits. One benefit is that competitive sport has been directly linked to decreasing obesity.1 The second benefit is improved social behavior. “Athletes in competitive sports are less likely to smoke or use illicit drugs. In a study of over 14,000 high school students published in the Journal Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, the ones who played sports were less likely to use drugs.”1  The third benefit is higher academic achievement. Studies have shown that participation in competition leads to higher GPA, lower dropout rates and increased college attendance.1 The last benefit is pursuit of career. A survey showed that 95% of individuals at the top of their companies participated in some type of competitive sport.1 These are just a few of the benefits associated with competition and participation in competitive activities improves teamwork and leadership skills as well as those areas.  
When it comes to cooperative activities, the benefits are also numerous. The primary difference is that this style positively affects both athletes and nonathletes.2 Not every student is the same and not every student thrives from competition. Therefore, students need to know that there are other ways for for activity and exercise other than competition. Cooperative activities do just that. Key benefits of participation in cooperative activities include the same as competitive, but also deal with:.
“1. Society values teamwork that promotes cooperation and cohesiveness over competition.
2. Individuals achieve simply by experiencing the process of team building.
3. Team building breeds success without any losers, as happens in competition.
4. A success experience may be contributing an idea and being listened to.
5. Roles change from passive to interactive.
6. Team building is a concept; physical challenges is a method of teaching it.
7. Skills needed: listening, praising and encouraging/ communication, decision-making, conflict resolution, risk taking, and affirmation.
8. Most physically skilled may find themselves in unfamiliar roles, perhaps dependent on their teammates.”2  
As you can see, there are similar benefits to both competitive and cooperative activities in physical education classes. Having a mix of both ensures that more students are being reached. This could very well be the ideal physical education class.

1Dr. David Geier (2012). The benefits of playing sport aren’t just physical. Sports Medicine Simplified.

2Barry Trent (2005). Cooperative and Adventure Games. Health and Physical Activity Institute.

Sunday, October 30, 2016

Adapted Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

“In 2013–14, the number of children and youth ages 3–21 receiving special education services was 6.5 million, or about 13 percent of all public school students. Among students receiving special education services, 35 percent had specific learning disabilities.”3 There are a variety of children that are registered in their afterschool program from pre-k to the eighth grade. When you have that many kids you are bound to have some that require a physical adaptation to a game or activity. The staff in afterschool programs are usually aware of any disability, mental or physical, a child has. Disabilities are not limited to the physical aspects of afterschool programs but the cognitive side as well.

adaptedfriends.jpgThe ADA defines a person with a disability as “a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity.”1 During the afterschool program, time is allotted for students to work on homework with counselors. The counselors are aware of each student’s learning disabilities and how to work with each; extra time, different ways of reading/writing,learning numbers, etc.

Afterschool programs helps students “develop self-confidence as they explore new talents in areas that may not be addressed by the regular school curriculum.”2 This mantra stands true for any child. A few games that could be modified include:

-Use various size balls (size, weight, texture, color)
-Allow travelling
-Allow two hand dribble
-Disregard three second lane violation
-Use larger/lower goal
-Slow the pace, especially when first learning
-If student uses wheelchair, allow him to hold ball on his lap while pushing wheelchair
-Use beeper ball, radio under basket for individual with visual impairment

-Use walking instead of running
-Have well defined boundaries
-Reduce playing area
-Play six-a-side soccer
-If student uses a wheelchair, allow him to hold ball on his lap while pushing the wheelchair
-Use a deflated ball, nerf ball, beeper ball, brightly colored ball
-Use a target that makes noise when hit

-Use velcro balls and mitts
-Use larger or smaller bats
-Use a batting tee
-Reduce the base distances
-Use Incrediballs
-Shorten the pitching distance
-If individual is in wheelchair, allow them to push ball off ramp, off lap, or from tee
-Use beeper balls
-Provide a peer to assist
-Players without disabilities play regular depth defense
-Students without disabilities count to ten before tagging out person with disability

These three activities are only a handful of countless games and activities that can be easily modified to help keep each child with a disability involved. Afterschool programs are designed for every child. Every child needs a safe place to go to continue growing and socializing after the school bell rings.


1 ADA National Network. What is the definition of disability under the ADA?

2Concept to Classroom. Key Principles of Developing Afterschool Curriculum.

3National Center for Education Statistics (May 2016). Children and Youth with Disabilities.

4 PE Central (2015). Adaptations for Specific Activities.

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Upper Cross Syndrome and its Relation to Baseball
     In the athletics industry, there is a popular term used to describe the different muscle groups of the upper body while training. Generally, the upper body can be broken down into two separate groups. The “show” muscles, consisting of the anterior chain of muscles: pectoralis muscles, abs, and biceps, and the “go muscles” consisting of the posterior chain of muscles: rhomboids, triceps, lats, and the trapezius muscle complex.2 As you could imagine based on what the name implies, the anterior chain muscles are generally the look good muscles, but the posterior chain muscles are what’s important in providing stability, power, and total body strength.2 Sometimes, due to either ineffective training, or poor care of the body following exercise, some of the “show” muscles become tight and overactive, while a majority of the “go muscles” become stretched out, weak, and inhibited. This occurrence is known as upper cross syndrome (UCS), and is characterized by protracted shoulders and a forward head.3 Specifically, athletes displaying UCS exhibit tight pecs (major and minor), upper traps, and cervical extensors (sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, and scalenes). As a result, the same athletes have inhibited, weak, and underactive mid-and-upper back muscles (mid/lower traps, serratus anterior, and rotator cuff).3
How does this tie into baseball and overhead athletes you ask? The overhead athletes that display UCS are predisposed to injury due to compensation and lack of proper biomechanics in throwing. Normally, the shoulder complex relies on the proper balance of muscle activation and flexibility between the anterior and posterior muscles involved in throwing.1 However, when there is a deficit in flexibility or strength in an agonistic muscle, the antagonist muscle must compensate to create equal force, causing muscle dysfunction.1 These differences in normal muscle function lead to changes in arthrokinematics and movement impairments, which could possibly lead to structural damage.1 Janda found in his research that subacromial impingement, a condition in which a narrowing of the subacromial space, is a common result from UCS. This impingement results in inflammation occurring in the rotator cuff, biceps tendon long head, and subacromial bursa.1 Not only is this a problem in itself as far as pain and lack of proper movement goes, but it also results in compensation in the throwing motion, creating more stress at the shoulder and elbow to make up in power.

Works Cited:
1Page, P. (2011). SHOULDER MUSCLE IMBALANCE AND SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME IN OVERHEAD ATHLETES. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy6(1), 51–58.
2Pomazak, R. (2014, April 9). 'Show Muscles' for Strength vs. 'Go Muscles' for Performance. Retrieved October 13, 2016, from

3Sutton, B. (2013, November 22). Shoulder Pain Prevention. Retrieved October 13, 2016, from

Bradley Moss
Kinesiology 5301
Blog #4
An In depth Look at the Wide receiver position in Football.
In previous blogs, we have looked at the quarterback and the running back position in football. In this blog we will take a better in depth look at the wide receiver position as well as the possible statistics they can achieve.
A closer look at the Wide Receiver Position
To start let’s look at where the wide receiver lines up at the line of scrimmage. This is actually pretty flexible depending on the type offensive formation. Normally they will line up on either side of the offensive line on or off the line of scrimmage. There can be anywhere from 1 to 5 receivers on the field at a time. When the ball is snapped and it is a passing play, it is the receiver's responsibility to run the correct route down the field. Once the route is ran they may or may not get an opportunity to catch the ball. It depends on if the quarterback sees him open and decides to pass the ball to him. As the routes that a receiver can run, these can be endless. A lot of it depends on the abilities of the receiver. For example if you have a receiver with blazing speed the coach of the team might have a lot of deep routes for him to run.This will give that type of receiver an opportunity to play to his strengths. On the opposite end a team might have a receiver might not have the greatest of speed but he could be extremely quick with good hands. Therefore to take advantage of his skill a team might throw a lot of quick and shallow pass to him and see if he can out maneuver and linebacker and safeties out of the slot.
Key Wide Receiver Statistics
Now that we have taking an in depth look at the receiver position. We will now take a look at key statistics that the wide receiver can accumulate in football.
  • Catch - This is when a receiver catches a ball past the line of scrimmage.
  • Receiving yards - This stat is accumulated depending on how many yards the receiver gets during and after catching the ball.
  • Receiving Touchdown -  A receiver can earn this statistic by either catching the ball in the end zone or catching the ball and running into the end zone.
  • Drop - A negative statistics, This is when a receiver drops the pass that is thrown his way.

Gym Myth-Buster (Spot Reduction)

Slim Belly And Measure TapeSpot reduction is the idea that a person can reduce fat at the area of their choice without affecting other parts of the body. This is a very common myth. Many believe that if they are seeking flat abs that doing 2,000 sit ups or doing hip hop abs or other various commercial workouts is the best way to achieve their goals. It does seem perfectly reasonable to assume that while working out, the fat would tend to come off the area that you are working. Unfortunately, this is not true.

A study from the University of Massachusetts showed that participants were asked to only train abs, and fat biopsies were gathered from the buttocks, abs, and upper back both before and after the training phase. The results revealed that all three areas had seen similar results. Fat had decreased in the upper back and buttocks despite a lack of training.1

The fact is that fat cells exist in a form known as triglycerides. Muscles, however cannot directly use triglycerides as fuel. Fat has to first be broken down into glycerol and free fatty acids, which then enter the bloodstream. As a result the fat that is used by the body as fuel can come from anywhere. Where the body decides to pull the fat from often has much more to do with a person's genetics.2

Perhaps the reason that spot training is often practiced is because of the fact that it will yield small results. However results seen at the targeted area are often so minimal that many people become discouraged. So what should we do?

Studies have shown that a proper resistance training routine along with adequate cardio and balanced nutrition plan will help us achieve the best results. It all comes back to basics. We must find a way to burn more calories than we consume. By engaging all areas of the body, exercisers will notice increase in total body strength and they will also have more well developed muscles when body fat is reduced. Through patience, determination, and consistency those abs will come, but it could possibly be the last place your body decides to burn fat regardless of your wishes or how hard you train your abs.

1Thompson, J. (2014, August 25). Fitness Advice | Training Tips | Horizon Fitness. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from

2Perry, E. (2011, April 3). Yale Scientific Magazine. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from

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NCAA Division II Violations

The use of violations ensures that member institutions remain in compliance with NCAA regulations. At the Division II level, there are two types of violations, secondary and major.

Image result for ncaa division ii logo
A secondary violation is a violation that is isolated or inadvertent in nature and provides, or is intended to provide, only a minimal recruiting, competitive or other advantage.1 Additionally, secondary violations do not include any significant impermissible benefits.1 Impermissible benefits include, but are not limited to, an extra benefit, recruiting inducement, preferential treatment, or financial aid.1 Multiple secondary violations by a member institution may be considered a major violation.1 Major violations include all other violations, excluding secondary violations, and especially those that provide a significant recruiting or competitive advantage.1

Most major violations pertain to extra benefits, responsibilities of the head coach, fulfillment of credit hour requirements, two-year college transfers, and an institution's responsibility to certify academic eligibility.2 Among secondary violations, the most common violations involve permissible expenses provided by the institution for practice and competition, comments prior to signing, tryouts, requirements for official visits, and full-time enrollment requirements for practice or competition.2

All violations, secondary and major, must be reported to the NCAA. Secondary violations can be self-reported online where the member institution proposes its own corrective actions or penalties for committing the violation.3 However, if the NCAA feels that the penalty is not sufficient enough, they will be in contact with the institution to make them aware of the more significant repercussions of the violation. The institution’s respective conference office may also enforce corrective actions or penalties as a result of the violation.3 If the eligibility of a prospective student-athlete or enrolled student-athlete was impacted by the violation, the institution’s compliance staff can request that the student-athlete be reinstated by the NCAA student-athlete reinstatement staff.3

The use of violations by the NCAA ensures that member institutions remain in compliance with legislation. Both secondary and major violations result in penalties, although major violations will present more severe repercussions. A student-athlete’s eligibility can also be impacted by violations and, therefore, the student-athlete may need to be reinstated by the NCAA staff.


1National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2016). 2016-17 NCAA Division II Manual. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Association.
2National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2015, October 29). Most Frequently Violated Rules: Division II Infractions Process. Retrieved from
3NCAA Enforcement Staff. (2015, September). NCAA Member Resource Guide: Investigating and Reporting Bylaw Infractions to the NCAA Enforcement Staff. Retrieved from