Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Osteoporosis & Exercise Rehabilitation

Morgan Walker B.S., ACSM EP-C

Past the age of 40 years, small amounts of bone mineral density (BMD) are lost each year.  Even though the disease affects both genders, the lesser bone mass and accelerated loss of BMD following menopause cause women to be prone to osteoporosis.1 Proper mineral supplementation and/or pharmacotherapy is often the first step physicians take to minimize bone loss in their clients.  Exercise rehabilitation for these clients is also part of the prescription.  

Resistance training that places an overload on the spine stimulates osteoblast activity within bones.  Osteoblasts are the cells responsible for creating bone tissue.  Spinal overload exercises are those where core stabilization is necessary (standing and overhead exercises).  With these in mind, more details on the FITT(frequency, intensity, time, and type) Principle for Osteoporosis are in the table below.

Training Type
5 d/wk
Moderate 11-13 on RPE Scale
Accumulate 30 min/d
2 d/wk
15 reps of 8-10 exercises
1-2 sets or 30-60 minutes
Range of Motion
5-7 d/wk
Stretch to maximal ROM without pain
15-20 minutes

Training not only increases bone mass, it improves muscle strength and flexibility which decreases likelihood of falling.  For these reasons, exercise rehabilitation for people with osteoporosis is the best course of action.  Exercise physiologists must understand which resistance training methods help build BMD while keeping the client safe.


1Ehrman J., Gordon P., Visich P. & Keteyian S. Clinical Exercise Physiology-3rd edition. 2013.

The Role of the Exercise Physiologist in Exercise Rehabilitation

Morgan Walker, B.S., ACSM EP-C

If you see exercise as an important element in health and want to motivate people to practice healthy behaviors, the American College of Sports Medicine sets the gold standard for exercise physiologists.  Exercise physiologists analyze their patients' fitness in order to help them improve their health or maintain good health. They help patients with heart disease and other chronic conditions, like diabetes or pulmonary (lung) disease, to regain their health.1  With a certification from ACSM, employers know that you have the best possible credential in the field of exercise physiology and personal training.

Image result for exercise physiologistThe certification requires extensive knowledge in exercise testing and safe, effective program design.  The ACSM EP-C seeks to help clients incorporate exercise into daily activity for a healthier lifestyle and improved quality of life.  Exercise physiologists can have positions in a few different settings: inpatient and outpatient hospital, and home health and personal training facilities (patients should be cleared by a physician for supervised exercise sessions in all settings).  

What sets exercise physiologists apart from other fitness professionals is the knowledge of chronic conditions, exercise testing, and targeted exercise rehabilitation to manage disease.  ACSM and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR) are two organizations that help link physicians to accredited exercise physiology professionals for the long term benefit of clients.     




Advancement in Kinesiology Profession: Physical Therapy

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“Tarleton State University provides an academically challenging education where learning is grounded in real-world experiences and effective teaching, research, scholarship, and service. As a member of the Texas A&M University System, Tarleton is rich in history and tradition while being committed to student success and diversity.
Tarleton strives to develop moral and ethical thinkers, scholars, and leaders who demonstrate civility and integrity, while contributing meaningfully and responsibly to a global society.”

Advancements in Kinesiology: Physical Therapy

About Kinesiology to Me

Kinesiology is important to me because movement is essential to basic overall health. Without movement, your body starts to lose muscle, bones weaken, and with the assistance of gravity, disease can occur. The body is intrinsically designed to move, and with movement is the prescription to prevent so many diseases.

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Tarleton state university: Kinesiology Department

December 8th, 2016
Dr. Sharon Bowers

Tarleton State University: Kinesiology Department
Jordan M. Larkin

Another technological advancement is the use of ultrasound.


·       Ultrasound uses sound waves to identify arteries in the body.2 Coincidentally, SCI has been associated with a decrease of arterial diameter in proportion with a decrease in muscle mass.2

·       In people with SCI there is a change that can be detected with ultrasound. The posterior tibial artery, near the ankle, shows a linear reduction in vasodilation.3

·       However, electrical stimulation can reverse this effect in paralyzed individuals. The equipment of an ultrasound ranges from $40,000-$100,000 depending on the use and the extra add-ons for the machine.

·       Being able to reverse this effect may lead to better treatment or a cure for paraplegia.


Advancements in noninvasive treatments such as MRI or Ultrasound have allowed kinesiology professionals to collect more information on muscle and arterial function in paralyzed individuals. Sophisticated improvements in technology continue to enhance the capabilities of treatment modalities in unprecedented ways. To summarize, technology in kinesiology is a double-edged sword. It provides great promise in what can be obtained but comes at a great cost in terms of time, money, and maintenance.  


To explain the advancements of kinesiology, we may need to “re-define” what kinesiology means and is. Kinesiology is an academic discipline that studies physical activity and its impact on health, society, and quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of this blog is to inform readers about the advancements in the kinesiology profession.

“Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.”—Thomas Abla Edison.

Vision Statement

I believe I am put on this earth to achieve great things. I believe in inspiring people to be the best they can be. I will engage in suitable practices and anticipate the need of my clients. To succeed you need to be willing to put in the time and effort. I value hard work, dedication, education, and respect. I want to help people enjoy the gift of life while having a people-oriented experience.
With me being the person I’ve grown to be I cannot give less than one hundred percent with each one of my clients. I thoroughly believe that if you give one hundred percent of your honest effort to each client than that will impact and spark a change that is everlasting.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Ultrasound. We may need to “re-define what Kinesiology means and is. Kinesiology is an academic discipline that studies physical activity and its impact on health, society, and quality of life.

With the recent surge of technological advancements in recent history, it is no surprise that technology has made its mark on the kinesiology research. These advancements have greatly impacted our ability to noninvasively quantify muscle activity.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 
A noninvasive technique called magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Originally introduced in 1978, this technology was scarce and was only used to measure muscle metabolism. With the proliferation and advancement of MR units, nearly all kinesiology departments have access to or could arrange access to this technology.

Using an MR unit, kinesiology professionals have discovered how much a muscle declines after sustaining an SCI which is roughly around 40% after one year.1 In addition, electrical stimulation of the paralyzed muscle can reduce that deficit, shown by the MRI.1 This knowledge gathered from the use of the MRI can allow professionals to better treat individuals with SCI.


               1McCully, K., Vandenborne, K., Posner, J., & Chance, B. (1994). Magnetic resonance in physiology and medicine. In R. Gillies (Ed.), MR in physiology and medicine (pp. 405–412). San Diego: Academic Press, Inc.

               2Olive, J.L., Dudley, G.A., & McCully, K.K. (2003). Vascular remodeling after spinal cord injury. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(6), 901–907.

               3Stoner, L., Sabatier, M., VanhHiel, L., Groves, D., Ripley, D., Palardy, G., et al. (2006). Upper vs lower extremity arterial function after spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 29(2), 138–146.