Friday, October 28, 2016

Triangle Passing


There are many different ways to get into a triangle set. The key objective is to confuse the defense as much as possible. We can do this by throwing different options so that we can handle anything the defense may throws at us. In each option, the ball will be on the wing to establish the sideline triangle.

1-2-2 set
In diagram C, the 1-2-2 set starts with the 5 and 4 player down-screening for the 2 and 3 player. The 2 and 3 player both cut out to the wing and the pass goes from the 1 to one of the wing players. The 1 player will cut to the ball-side corner and the sideline triangle is formed with the 5 in the low post. The weakside wing moves up to the top and the weakside post player moves to the weakside elbow-extended area. The 2, 1, and 5 will form the sideline triangle while the 3 and 4 players are in position to run the two man game.

Point guard inside cut


In diagram D, the 1 passes to the 2 and cuts inside, off the 5 screen near the ball-side elbow. The 2 has the option of either passing to the 1 on the give and go for a lay-up. If the 2 does not make the pass, the 1 can move to the ball side corner while 5 drops back down to the block. The 1 can also cut to the opposite corner.

Dribble entry-wing pass denied

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Diagram K, The pass to the wing is being denied, the 1 can simply dribble to the wing and push the 2 down to the corner. The defense sometimes like to overplay the pass, the 2 then have the opportunity to cut back door and receive a pass from the 1.

Diagram M, shows the 1 dribbling right and the 2 cutting through to the opposite corner. The ball is reversed from the 1 to the 3 at the top, and then to the 4( who has stepped out to the wing). The 5 cuts to the left block, and now the sideline triangle is established on the left side, and the 1 and 3 are now in the two man game.


1Kelbick, D. How to Run the Triangle Offense. Retrieved October 1, 2016, from

2Gels, J. A. (n.d.). Basketball Offense – High Low Triangle Offense. Retrieved October 1, 2016, from

Thursday, October 27, 2016

The Importance of Women's Basketball

Blog 5: The Importance of Women’s Basketball
Image result for usa women's basketballIn my previous blogs, I have explained the history and evolution of women’s basketball. In this blog, I hope to show you why women’s basketball is much more than just a means of exercise and why it is important not only to a player but to women everywhere. Betty Lennox of the WNBA states, “Basketball has taught me how to believe in myself, how to carry myself, and also how to deal with hard times and setbacks.”1 Basketball is so much more than a game.It teaches people to lead and push through life with confidence. Basketball doesn’t just let girls get out of their comfort zone, it teaches equality for all women.
Lauren Jackson, a superstar international player, states that “it is ingrained in people that women’s sports are not as good as mens.” She continues to say it is important that we make a push for equality in women’s sports and that basketball is a great way to help promote women’s equality.2 Women’s sports are starting to make an outbreak with Rousey’s 14 second knockout, Serena William’s domination in tennis, USA Women’s Soccer Team winning the World Cup, and the USA Women’s Basketball Team just won its sixth consecutive gold medal, downing Spain 101-72. This score is not even close and shows how much power women’s basketball holds. Even at the highest level of competition, the USA women’s team doesn’t have competition. These are all examples of how women could impact the world by using sports. While these people are the best at what they do, they strive to be the best of the court and just use their sport as a platform to change lives. I believe this is why women’s basketball is so important.
It is easy to say that women’s basketball deserves to be equal to men’s basketball but not easy to put in place. Title IX which states that “no person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.”3 This was implemented to help women receive the equality they deserve.
Basketball was created as a means of exercise for a Women’s physical education class. This is a huge reason why basketball is important but, as I explained in this blog, there is so much more to basketball than exercise. It teaches life skills, leadership, ownership and equality.
  1. Davinport, C. (2015, July 25). WNBA and gender equality - Swish Appeal. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from
  2. Lennox, B. (2014). In Her Own Words: The Importance of Women’s Basketball ... Retrieved October 20, 2016, from
  3. - Title IX Home. (2016). Retrieved October 20, 2016, from

The Game Today

Blog 4: The Game Today
Image result for basketball courtThe American Association for Health and Physical Education writes the first rule book for women’s 5 on 5 basketball with two to three referees.1 This means that every player on each team will have to run the full 94 feet, the game is no longer broken into “two courts”. The game
transferred to two 20 minute halves with a 20 minute half time. This was a long period of time for girls to play compared to what they used to play. To help the girls rest there are timeouts and a few dead balls but if you think of potentially running the full court, sprinting, and jumping for 5 minutes at a time that is a lot of room for exhaustion. Due to this they added the longer half time so the girls would have time to rest and this could reduce the risk of injury. They want the game to be fast pace but not too much so where they could get injured. In order to speed the game up they added a 30 second shot clock. The offensive team must shoot the ball before the thirty seconds is up. The game is constantly changing to adapt to the women and fans.  According to NCAA today the women’s game is still a 5 on 5 game but is now broken into 4, 10 minute quarters with a 20 minute half time and 5 minutes in between each quarter.2
The change of the game not only keeps fans on their toes but coaches as well. There are different coaching styles depending on the rules and regulations of a game. If the game was still two 20 minute halves the coach would probably sub more because the players are playing for longer periods at a time. If the game was broken into quarters they might sub less because the players have more rest time. While the game changes the impact doesn’t. Senda Berenson adopted this game for exercise and fun and that is one thing that will never change.
1.Hult, J. S., & Trekell, M. (1991). A Century of Women's Basketball. From Frailty to Final Four. AAHPERD Publications Sales, 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22901..

2.Wheelock. (2014). historical timeline - women's basketball hall of fame. Retrieved March 22, 2016, from

Rules & Regulations When the Game Started

Rules & Regulations When the Game Started
The game of women’s basketball looks completely different today than it did when it first started. Wheelock paints a timeline of women’s basketball and shows the time and adaptations of the game. “Women's basketball began in the winter of 1892 at Smith College. Senda Berenson, an instructor at Smith, taught basketball to her students, hoping the activity would improve their physical health. She didn’t know that she would be starting a sport that would eventually develop into the most popular women’s sport.”2 In order to keep it "acceptable" for women to play, she taught modified rules. These included a court divided into three areas and nine players per team. Three players were assigned to each area (guard, center, forward) and could not cross the line into another area. The ball was moved from section to section by passing or dribbling. The players were limited to three dribbles and could hold the ball for more than three seconds. No snatching or batting the ball away from a player was allowed. A center jump was required after each score.1 Peach baskets and the soccer ball was the only equipment used on a ninety-four foot by fifty foot court. They played two fifteen minute halves with eleven referees.1
The first game was held in March of 1893 where Berenson's freshmen played the sophomore class in the gym. In 1922 they required that there must be a minimum of six and a maximum of nine players on each side. It wasn’t until 1938 that basketball became a two-court game with just six people on each team. During this time the game started to get more popular and women began to gain a little bit of power. It wasn’t until 1971 that the women’s game developed most of the same rules and regulations that the boys played with.The American Association for Health and Physical Education (1972) wrote the first rule book for women’s five on five basketball with only two to three referees. This means that every player on each team will have to run the full ninety-four feet, the game is no longer broken into “two courts”. This change was one of the biggest changes in making women’s basketball popular.    

  1. A. (1972). official basketball rules for girls and women. pp. 1-48. Retrieved from

  1. Wheelock. (2014). historical timeline - women's basketball hall of fame. Retrieved March 22, 2016, from

How the Game Started

How the Game Started
Image result for peach basket and soccer ballIn the previous blog, I introduced two heroes in the world of sports, Dr. James Naismith and Senda Berenson. Naismith invented the game of basketball in December of 1891 in Springfield, Massachusetts where the winters were very cold.2 The game was originally created to keep the students active in PE during the cold winters because they couldn’t go outside. It only took him 2 weeks to make the game that transformed the world of sports. He started the game with a soccer ball, 2 peach baskets, a ladder and a rulebook with 10 rules.2
He made the sport for men because women did not play sports that were viewed as too strenuous. They only participated in individual sports such as horseback riding, hiking, rowing, swimming, golf, fencing, archery, and tennis.  The history of women’s basketball didn’t start until Senda Berenson adapted the rules and got women involved. Berenson knew there was something different about basketball. She believed the physical aspect would keep the girls healthy and the social aspect would teach them lifelong communication skills.
Berenson was a woman that worked hard in everything she did. She went to school for music but couldn’t finish because of her health so she joined gymnastics because she believed physical activity would help. She was only the second women to attend her gymnastics school so it was clear from a young age that she had a drive and would make a difference one day.2
Berenson joined the staff at Smith College after finishing up her gymnastics school and within a year after joining the staff Berenson read about the new game created by Naismith that had been invented as a class exercise for boys and developed a plan to get women involved.1 In order for her idea to be accepted she modified the original rules of "Basketball", for her female classes as a means of exercise, stressing socialization and cooperation rather than competition. She allowed only six team members to play on the court at one time where she divided the court into three sections from which players were assigned and remained throughout the game. She believed this prevented the women from overexerting themselves running all over the court and prevented exceptional players from dominating the game. The game of women’s basketball was finally created in 1892 and has developed over time to one of the greatest sports of all time.1
Image result for peach basket and soccer ball
1A. (1972). official basketball rules for girls and women. pp. 1-48. Retrieved from
2Wheelock. (2014). historical timeline - women's basketball hall of fame. Retrieved March 22, 2016, from

The Creators of Women's Basketball

The Creators of Women’s Basketball
There are some people in this world that need no introduction, and in my opinion both James Naismith and Senda Berenson should be two of those people. Unfortunately a lot of people do not know who they are but my goal is to show you the legendary impact they have had on the world of sports, and more specifically, basketball.

File:1882 SendaBerenson ...Other resolutions: 174 × 240 ...Dr. James Naismith was born on November 6, 1861, and was a Canadian-American physical educator who added to the world of sports.1 His title was a physical educator but he was much more than that. He was an innovator that used a cold winter in Massachusetts to create what some believe to be the best sport; basketball. Naismith was someone we would refer to as a “handy man” today; he could do it all. His job was a “physical educator” but he was one of the best because his title didn’t limit him. Naismith was way more than just a physical educator; he was a physician, chaplain, and sports coach. As a physical educator we know that using all of your knowledge, creativity and resources are key in being successful in a classroom. Who would have thought that a cold winter with a soccer ball, 2 peach baskets , and a ladder could eventually turn into one of the greatest games in the world? Not a lot of people, but Naismith was trying to find any way possible to get his men’s class active when the weather was too cold to go outside. He used his innovative mind and limited resources  to create the game of basketball.
When the game of basketball was invented women of that time did not participate in team sports that were viewed as too strenuous. they only participated in individual sports that were not as taxing on the body. Senda Berenson, also known as the mother of basketball, rightfully believed that women were far more capable of such strenuous activities than people thought. Senda read about the new game created by Naismith, attended a physical education conference at Yale University and observed the game being played  to understand what the game of basketball was all about.2 After learning about the great game she decided she wanted to adopt the sport for a healthy lifestyle for her girls PE class. She had the privilege of meeting the game’s inventor, Dr. James Naismith, and received his encouragement to adopt the sport for her female class.3 Berenson’s courage, strength, and determination took one of the greatest sports and made it available to women. She isn’t just a hero in the eyes of basketball she is a hero in women's rights and equality as well.

  1. McCuaig, D. S. (n.d.). Basketball : A YMCA Invention. Retrieved September 29, 2016, from

2.  I. (n.d.). Senda Berenson Abbott - Women's Basketball Hall of Fame. Retrieved September 29,         2016, from

3. Stillman, Agnes CoraRuth.  Senda Berenson Abbott: Her Life and Contributions to Smith College and to the Physical Education Profession.  Thesis (M.S.), Smith College, 1971.

Sunday, October 23, 2016

College Football Terminology

College football teams across the country speak their own language, often referred to as their terminology.  Teams have terminology to identify everything including position titles, alignment, formations, scheme, pass routes, movement, pass coverage and more.1  Considering the average annual rate of attrition in a college football program is around 25%, a coaching staff is teaching up to a quarter of its team their unique terminology every year. This blog covers suggestions for developing terminology as well as suggestions on how to teach or install the terminology.  
Teaching and learning terminology is a high priority in any college football program, it certainly was at the University of Wisconsin (currently ranked 11th in the Associated Press poll) last off-season with the acquisition of a new defensive coordinator.2  So how can a college football program develop their vast terminology in a manner that will lend to simple teaching, proficient retention and most importantly highly dependable game-day recall? One thing programs can do is build their terminology around simple naming conventions. For example, defensive terminology may include NFL teams to name their different defensive fronts, opposed to using random names.  In doing so anytime the defense hears Chargers or Raiders or Broncos they know this is referring to a specific defensive line alignment making learning and recalling the calls a bit simpler.  Another example would be using colors to name secondary coverage's.  Here again, the defense would recognize the use of any color in a call as a secondary coverage making learning, retention and recall far more simple than using random terms.
University of Mississippi sideline communicating with their team on the field during the 2014 Egg Bowl, their annual rivalry game against Mississippi State University.
Once a college football program agrees on its naming conventions and specific terminology it must determine how to teach or install the terminology in the most efficient manner possible, keeping in mind retention and recall are the most important elements of the installation.  While terminology is often published in dictionary type form for study purposes, one of the simplest approaches to efficient installation is to teach as you go. In other words, instead of teaching all the terminology up front, teach only the terminology associated with the particular piece of scheme being installed.  This bite size approach allows installation to proceed at an acceptable rate without overloading the players with terms not relevant at that particular time.
It is imperative that a college football team execute in unison.  All eleven players on the field must understand their assignment and execute it in order for the team to be successful on any given play.  Key to the team’s ability to do this is effective communication based on a common language referred to a terminology. Designing terminology around easily recalled naming conventions and teaching the terminology in small increments associated with scheme installation are ways to improve communication and ultimately enjoy greater success.
1Reed, J (2015, September 14). American Football Terminology Dictionary. Retrieved from
2Worgull, B (2016, March 17). Wisconsin defensive coordinator Justin Wilcox spending first three practices installing terminology. Retrieved from

Most Effective Defense 4-3 vs 3-4

The saying goes, “Offense sells tickets, and defense wins games”. There are different philosophies at all levels in football on defensive formations based on the players they have, what they might expect from the opposing offense, and what defensive coaches may feel more comfortable with doing come game time. Defensive coaches continue to look for ways to slow down offenses. The big question is what type of defense is more effective football.

Types of Defense:

The 4-3 Defense is the most commonly used defense in football. 4-3 defense consists of four down linemen, three linebackers, two cornerbacks, and two safeties are the standards for this defense.  The 4-3 defense is modified to be able to adjust to various offensive sets. Defensive coaches that run with four down linemen and three linebackers have made it difficult for offense teams to figure out because they don’t just sit back and rush four. The 4-3 defensive schemes are able to look to damage an offense with blitzes. Because of the 4-3 high flexibility, offense are not able to be as mobile as they could be against other defensive looks ran in football.

The 3-4 Defense consists of three down linemen and four linebackers. The 3-4 defense has become the NFL’s most popular front. There are a lot of advantages in defenses that run a 3-4 defensive scheme; the run and giving multiple looks are the two that stand out the most. Having an effective run game is very important for an offense to really be able to open up their playbook to the passing game.  The  3-4 defense,  is more effective against zone concepts teams running out of the backfield as compared to  inside and outside run games, which are ran laterally to try and stretch out the defense and attack downhill. To attack these type of runs, the 3-4 defense is best to penetrate this run game. The nose guard of the 3-4 defense is the anchor and needs to be able to get downhill with speed and into the backfield and be able to cut off any cutback from the zone run game. This gives the ball carrier limited options running inside/outside zone. The 3-4 defense gives multiple looks having only three down line men and four backers that make it difficult for the offense to determine how many are blitzing. Overall the 3-4 defense in football is unpredictable and will force a quarterbacks to break down everything after the snap.

When looking at the 4-3 and 3-4 defense, pass coverage's should never make difference of how they are ran or set up in the defense. Cover 2, cover 3, cover 4 or man coverage's should all be the same in every defensive schemes. Overall, when comparing the two defensive schemes, it's not easy to determine which is has been more successful or more effective to run. Teams have to base the schemes they run based off the players they have. Teams with defensive players with a lot of speed and guys more athletic up front might focus more on a 3-4 scheme compared with a team up front built with power running a 4-3 scheme. It's all about the players you have on a team that should determine what scheme to run and to find your success on defense.

Is there an answer to the 3-4 vs 4-3 debate?. Adrian Nelson III. Aug. 27 2015

Which defensive schemes are most effective in the NFL?. Alen Dumonjic. July 4 2012

Which NFL defensive schemes are most effective? Joe Redemann. Feb. 15 2015

Tarleton State Football
Cary Fowler ( Defensive Coordinator)
Bradley Moss
Kinesiology 5301

Blog #3
An Indepth Look at the Running back position in football
The running back position is considered a skilled position in football. There are two different official positions for a running back. The first position is called a half back and the second is called a full back. In this blog I will look at the responsibilities of these two positions as well as how they can accumulate statistics.
Responsibilities of the running back
1To start, it should be noted that the running back will generally line up right behind the quarterback. After the ball is snapped, there is a variety of options that the running back has  depending on what play is called in the huddle. The first option is to receive a handoff from the quarterback and run the football through the design gaps made by the offensive line. An option that the full back or halfback has is providing the last line of quarterback defense when the ball is snapped. They will generally be the last line of defense to help protect the quarterback. One final option of the running back is when the ball is snapped they can act as another receiver by catching a pass behind or in front of the line of scrimmage. Thus will become an extra receiver for the quarterback to pass to.
Running back Statistics
The following is the most relevant statistics that a running back can obtain in football.
  • Rushing yards: Number of yards gained after receiving ball from quarterback via pitch or handoff.
  • Receiving yards: Number of yards gained  by catching a pass from the quarterback behind or ahead of the line of scrimmage.
  • Rushing Touchdowns: Number of times the running back crosses the opposing team's end zone after receiving a handoff or pitch from the quarterback.
  • Receiving Touchdowns: Number of times the running back crosses the opposing team’s end zone after catching a pass from the quarterback
  • Fumble: A negative stat;when the ball carrier loses a ball before he is considered down by contact.
The purpose of this blog was to gain a better understanding of the running back position.


The Benefit of After School Programs: Parents Edition

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment characteristics of families’ summary, revealed in April of this year that two-fifths of all families had children under the age of eighteen; that is 34.4 million families’ of which 60.6% both parents work.1
After school programs generally begin after school lets out around three o’clock in the afternoon and end around six o’clock in the evening. These three hours that children under the age of eighteen are out of school and their guardian is still hard at work are crucial. To most, leaving their child or children at an establishment for three hours is kind of nerve racking. Parents may worry about what kind of people they are leaving their children with. The workforce at after school programs are comprised of a variety of people “youth workers, credentialed teachers, social workers and other professionals, with varying levels of education and experience.”2 Parents may find comfort in knowing that the staff is “generally well-educated.”2 In fact, “two-thirds of after school staff have a two-year college degree or higher and fifty-five percent have a four-year degree or higher.”2  Many of the staff members actually hold full-time jobs on top of working these extra hours in the afternoon/evening. These staff members say that working in the after school program gives them a sense of fulfillment.2

“In 2015, about two-thirds (68.2 percent) of families with an unemployed member also had at least one family member who was employed, and 58.8 percent had at least one family member who was employed full time.”1 So, there are families out there that have one parent or guardian that works full-time and one that does not, so what is it that could draw that percentile in? The amazing academic benefits their child or children could receive by attending. An effective afterschool program has been shown to actually improve classroom behavior and in turn improve academic performance. 2 A national evaluation found that forty percent of children who attended a program improved in reading and math; the evaluation also showed that children who attended on a more regular basis had a better chance at continuing their scholastic improvement.2

1"Employment Characteristics of Families Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 22 Apr. 2016. Web. 19 Sept. 2016.

2 "Benefits for Youth, Families, & Communities." N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2016.